mushroom_ki_kheti

Duniya bhar mein aisa dekha gaya hai ki mushroom ka istemaal khaane aur dawaaiyon mein kiya gaya hai. Aisa isliye kyonki mushroom ek bahut hi healthy aur nutritious food item hai. Mushrooms mein fat ka level bahut kam hota hai aur iska sewan karne se heart bhi healthy rehta hai. Kuch time pehle tak mushroom ka sewan kuch areas aur regions tak hi limited tha par Globalisation aur badte consumerism ke karan, aaj mushroom ka sevan sabhi areas aur regions mein kiya jata hai. Dekhte hi dekhte mushroom ne bahut hi tezi se cooking books aur kitchens mein apni jagha bana li hai jis wajha se Mushroom ki Kheti yani ki Mushroom farming business karne ke awasar badh gaye hain. Toh aaj hum aapko batayenge mushroom ki kheti kya hoti hai se lekar mushroom ki kheti se kitna munafa kama sakte hain.

Iss article mein hum aapko batayenge-

Mushroom ki kheti kya hoti hai

Mushroom kitne prakar ke hote hain

Mushroom farming business kaise kare

Mushroom farming Training Centers in India

Mushroom ka beej kaha milta hai

Mushroom ki kheti mein lagat

Mushroom ko kahan beche

Mushroom ki kheti se munafa

Mushroom ki kheti ke liye subsidies aur loans

Mushroom farming business se jude kuch Tips

Mushroom farming business se jude kuch sawal


Mushroom ki kheti kya hoti hai

Bahut se logo ko lagta hai ki mushroom ek plant hai kyonki isse bhi baki plants ki tarah khaad aur bhoose ke maadhyam se ugaaya jata hai lekin agar dekha jaye toh  mushroom koi plant ya vegetable nahi hai. Mushroom ko Fungus ki category mein dala jata hai. Generally mushroom ka istemaal sabjiyon ke taur par kiya jata hai aur ek healthy food item hone ka kaaran inki market mein demand bhi bahut zyada hai. Isliye jab kisi kisan/ entrepreneur dwara mushroom ki demands ko poora kiya jaata hai, toh iss business ko Mushroom ki Kheti yani Mushroom Farming Business kaha jaata hai.

Mushroom kitne prakar ke hote hain

Agar aap mushroom ki kheti karna chaahte hain, toh aap 3 types ke mushroom ki kheti kar sakte hain jaise ki-

  • Button Mushroom
  • Oyster Mushroom (Dhingri mushroom)
  • Milky Mushroom

Button Mushroom- Button Mushroom ko low temperature wale areas mein ugaaya jaata hai lekin Greenhouse Technology ke aane par inhe kisi bhi area bhi ugaya jaa sakta hai. Sarkar dwara button mushroom ki kheti ko promote karne ke liye encourage kiya jata hai. Button mushroom ko ugane ke liye 14-18°C ka temperature, proper moisture aur fresh air hona zaruri hai isilye iski kheti zyadatar Himalyan range aur north Indian areas mein ki jaati hai.
Oyster Mushroom- Oyster mushroom ko dhingri mushroom bhi kaha jata hai. Oyster Mushroom ki kheti bahut asaan aur sasti hoti hai.Oyster mushroom mein baki mushrooms ki tulna mein bahut se medical properties hoti hain. Metropolitan cities jaise Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai aur Calcutta mein inki demand bahut high hai isliye iska utpadan pichle 3 saalo mein 10 times badh chuka hai. Tamil Nadu aur Orissa mein inki bikri almost har gaaon mein hoti hai. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala, Rajasthan aur Gujarat mein oyster mushroom ki kheti bahut popular ho chuki hai.
Milky Mushroom- Milky Mushroom ka scientific name Calocybe Indica hai. Milky mushroom ka akaar button mushroom se milta julta hai. Button mushroom ke comparison mein milky mushroom ka tanaa bahut hi maansal, lamba aur kaafi mota hota hai aur uski cap bahut hi choti aur jaldi  khulne wali hoti hai. Milky mushroom ki kheti ke liye high temperature ki zarurat hoti hai. Fungus ko spread hone ke liye 25-35° Celsius temperature aur 80-90% moisture content ki zarurat padti hai.

Mushroom farming business kaise kare

  1. Button Mushroom ki kheti ki vidhi
  • Kheti ke liye sahi samaye
    Button mushroom ko ugane ka sahi samay October se March tak ke beech ka hota hai. Button mushroom ki harvesting ke liye shuruwat mein 220-260 temperature hona chahiye. Iss temperature par fungal trap bahut tezi se spread hota hai.  Baad mein aap iska taap 140-180 ke beech bhi rakh sakte hain. Isse kam temperature par button mushroom bahut kam rate par grow kareinge.
  • Compost banane ki vidhi
    Button mushroom ki kheti ek special type ki khaad par ki jaati hai jisse Compost kehte hain. Compost banane ke liye kisi machine ya equipment ki zarurat nahi padti. Compost banane ke liye kuch materials ki zarurat padti hai jaise-

    Gehu aur Chawal ka bhoosa (Wheat and Rice)
    Ammonium Sulphate
    Calcium Ammonium Nitrate
    Super Phosphate
    Urea
    Wheat bran
    Gypsum

Compost ko shed mein taiyaar kiya jata hai. Compost ko taiyaar hone mein 28 days ka samay lagta hai. Sabse pehle bhoose ko saaf aur flat floor par 2 din tak uss par paani daalkar geela kiya jata hai. Iss phase mein bhoose ka moisture content 75% tak hona chahiye aur weh bahut zyada thick nahi hona chahiye. 2 din tak paani dalne ke baad, bhoose ko break karke ye check karna chahiye ki kahin weh andar se sookha toh nahi hai. Agar bhoosa sookha hai toh uss par phir se paani dalna chahiye.

Iss geele bhoose mein Gypsum ke alawa baki sabhi ingredients milakar usse thoda aur geela karein. Iss baat ka dhyaan rakhein ki paani bhoose se bahar na nikle. Iske baad bhoose se 1 metre chauda, 3 metre lamba aur 1.5 metre uncha square shape ka pile ya dher bana lein. Uss dher ko 2-3 din tak aise hi padhe rehne dein. 3 din baad dher ki palti shuru karein aur iss baat ka dhyan rakhein ki uske andar ka part bahar aa jaye aur bahar ka part andar aa jaye.

Paltaayi karne ki details humne neeche bata rakhi hain-

Number of days

Prakriya (Process)

0-2 days

Bhoose ko geela karna aur gysum ke alawa sabhi ingredients milakar uska dher banana

3rd day

First paltayi karte time dher ko iss tarah break karein ki uska upper part neeche aa jaaye aur lower part upar aa jaye. Iss par Linden sprinkle karein taki makhiyan uss par na baithe aur aaspas Formalin 6% solution ko spray karein.

6th day

Dher ki second time paltayi karein.

9th day

Third paltayi karte time Gypsum ko usmein mix karein aur fir se ek dher banaye.

12th day

Fourth paltayi karte time Formalin 6% solution ko sprinkle karein.

15th day

Fifth paltayi

18th day

Sixth paltayi karte time aaspas Formalin 4% solution ko sprinkle karein.

21st day

Seventh paltayi karte time compost ko smell karein aur check karein ki kahin ammonia ki smell na aa rahi ho. Agar ammonia ki smell aa rahi ho toh paltayi theek tareeke se karein.

24th day

Eighth paltayi karte time iss baat ka dhyan rakhein ki ammonia ki smell bilkul bhi nahi aa rahi ho. Agar aisa ho toh ek baar fir se paltayi karein nahi to crop yield bahut kam hoti hai. 

NOTE- Compost mein moisture content check karne ke liye ussey muthhi mein lekar press karein. Agar aapko apni fingers ke beech mein thoda pani nazar aaye toh iska matlab yeh hua ki moisture content appropriate hai lekin agar aisa karne par zyada pani release hota hai toh compost ko spread kardein taki excess moisture udh jaaye.

  • Spawning (Beejayi)
    Mushroom ke beej fresh, fully grown aur fungus free hone chahiye. Mushroom beej ki quantity 1 quintal compost mein 0.75-1 kg honi chahiye. Beej ko achhi tarah compost mein mix kar ke, unhe ya toh 12 inches ke polythene bags mein ya 6-8 inches ki polythene sheet par shelf mein bhardein. Polythene bags ko upar se fold kar ke band kardena chahiye jab ki polythene sheets ko newspaper se dhak dena chahiye. Polythene bags 8 kg ka compost bharne ke according hone chahiye, isse utpadan 10 kg compost ke barabar hota hai. Iss samay room ka temperature 250 aur moisture content 70% rakhna chahiye. Around 15 days mein spawn run pura ho jata hai aur iske baad Casing ki zarurat padti hai.
  • Casing
    Soil ki casing ke liye appropriate mixture banana padta hai. Mixture banane ke liye aapko kuch specified proportion mein ingredients lene padta hai jaise-
  1. Garden Fertilizer (FYM) Loam Soil (1: 1)
  2. FYM 2 saal purana Button Mushroom Fertilizer (1: 1)
  3. FYM loam soil sand two saal purana button mushroom manure (1: 1:1)

Upar bataaye gaye koi bhi ek mixture choose karein par Mixture (b) sabse zyada suitable aur high yielding hai. Isse 8 hours tak pani mein soak karke rakhna zaruri hai. 8 hours baad casing soil ko pani se nikalkar aur sukha kar, usse Formaline 6% solution se sterlize karna chahiye aur usse 48 hours tak band rakhna chahiye. Iske baad isse kholkar 24 hours tak spread karke rakhna chahiye taki mixture sookh jaaye. Spawn run compost par 1 inch ki thick layer iss casing soil ki lagni chahiye aur water sprinkling iss tarah se honi chahiye ki sirf casing hi geeli ho. Room ka temperature 200 se kam, moisture content 70-90% aur room mein fresh air aane ke liye jagha honi chahiye. Casing ke 10-12 days baad ismein chote chote mushrooms ki germination shuru ho jati hai. Iss samay se casing par 0.3% Calcium chloride din mein 2 baar paani ke sath sprinkle karna chahiye jisase agle 5-7 days mein mushroom fully grow kar paayein. Iske baad inhe rotate karke break karna chahiye aur split karne ke baad inke stem portion ko knife se cut karna chahiye. Ek baar casing apply karne ke baad agle 80 days tak mushroom ki harvesting hoti rehti hai.

2. Oyster Mushroom aur Milky Mushroom ki kheti ki vidhi
Iss vidhi mein mushroom ke utpadan ke liye kuch chemicals ki help se gehu (wheat) ke bhoose mein se bacterias kp destroy kiya jata hai taki uss bhoose mein asaani se mushroom grow kar paayein.

  • Bhoose ki purification
    Bhoose ko purify karne ke liye, heavy mechanic cement se ek water chamber banaya jata hai aur uske lower part mein ek hole ya tap lagaya jata hai taki excess water bahar nikal paaye jismein 1500 litres paani mein 1.5 litres Formalin aur 150 grams Carbon DIZIYAM mix kiye jaate hain. Uske baad inhe pairo se achhi tarah mix kiya jata hai aur pani ka colour white ho jata hai. Iske baad iss pani mein around 1.5 Quintals gehu ka bhoosa daal diya jata hai. Iske baad bhoose ko paani ke sath pairo se crush kiya jata hai taki weh pani mein achhi tarah mix ho jaye. Jab bhoosa pani ke sath achhi tarah mix ho jaye toh isse plastic tarpaulin se cover kiya jata hai. Yeh process isliye kiya jata hai taki bhoosa air ke contact mein na aaye. Air ke contact mein aane se chemicals asar nahi kar pate aur bhoose mein present insects Mushroom ki kheti mein dikkat paida karte hain.
  • Bhoose ko sukhana
    Summers mein mushroom farming karne ke liye, next step hai bhoose ko dry karna yani sukhana jiske liye bhoose ko chamber se nikal liya jata hai aur kisi clean jagha par dry hone ke liye spead kardiya jata hai aur usse har 2 ghanto mein palta jata hai. Aisa isliye kiya jata hai taki bhoose mein chemicals ka koi bhi part na rahe. Bhoose mein present moisture ko 50% tak kam karne ke liye aur usse thanda karne ke liye yeh practice apnaayi jaati hai aur iss practice ka tme period 20-24 hours tak ke beech ka hota hai.
  • Spawn ki beejayi karna
    Summers mein Oyster aur Milky mushroom ki kheti ke liye agla step  beejayi yani ki mushroom spawn(beej) ko bhoose mein milane k hota hai. Beejayi ko karne ka sabse achha waqt subhe ka hota hai.
  1. Milky Mushroom ki spawning (beejayi) karna
    Milky mushroom ki beejayi ke liye sabse pehle plastic ke bags lene chahiye aur unhe neeche dono corners se cut kiya jata hai. Aisa isliye kiya jata hai taki agar bhoose mein paani reh jaye toh weh bahar nikal jaye. 

    Iske baad mushroom beej ko choti polyhenes mein lekar light hands se press kiya jata hai aur uss choti polythene par halki halki chot deni chahiye taki daane seperate ho jaaye. Beejayi ke time iss baat ka dhyan rahein ki agar mushroom spawn ke daane aapas mein chipke hue hain toh unhe haatho mein rub karke alag alag karlena chahiye taki spawn (beej) achhi tarah bhoose mein mil jaye.

    Agla step hai plastic bags ko haath mein lena aur plastic bags ka size 16 X 18 inches hona chahiye. Plastic bags mei bhoosa iss tarah se bharna hota hai ki 3 layers mein ye upar tak bhar jayein kyonki mushroom spawn ki beejayi 3 layers mein karni hoti hai. Bag mein bhoosa dalne ke bad approximately aadhi muthi mushroom spawn daal diye jaate hain aur aisa totaal 3 baar karna hota hai. Iss procedure ko 3 baar repeat karne ke baad plastic bags ko press kar rubber band ke through baandh diya jata hai. Uske baad pan ki help se chote polythenes mein approximately 10 holes karein jate hain taki weh fresh air ke contact mein aa sakein.

b) Oyster Mushroom ki Spawning(beejayi)
Oyster mushroom ki spawning ke liye sabse pehle bhoose ko ek clean  place par spread kar diya jata hai aur ussi mein mushrooom spawn ko sprinkle kiya jata hai. Iske baad bhoose ko achhi tarah haatho se palta jata hai taki mushroom spawn ismein achhe se mix ho jaaye. Jab bhoose ke sath beej achhi tarah mix ho jaye toh  bhoose plastic bag mein round shape mein bharna hota hai. Round shape mein bharne ke liye bhoose ko polythene ki 4 taraf spread aur press karke bharna hota hai.

Iske baad plastic bag ko rubber band ke through baand diya jata hai aur polythenes mein approximately 10 holes kar diye jate hain taki mushroom agar polythene se bahar aaye toh ek dusre se na takraye. Uske baad inhe ek closed room mein rakh diya jata hai

  • Oyster Mushroom ki kheti ke liye room ka environment kaisa hona chahiye?
    Mushroom ki kheti  ke liye ek aise room ki need hoti hai jismein ek door aur window ho aur agar door aur window aamne samne ho toh bahut achha hota hai. Room mein plastic bags rakhne ke liye hum ya toh RACK METHOD yani room mein bamboo ka ek rack banwa sakte hain ya fir rope ka use karke bhi ie HANGING METHOD ka use karke bhi mushroom ke bags rakhne ki space banayi jaa sakti hai. Jab plastic bags ko room mein shift kiya jata hai  toh 15 days tak uss room ki lights, doors aur windows ko band rakha jata hai. Jiss room mein oyster mushroom ki kheti kari jaa rahi hoti hai uss room mein 15 days tak air aane ka koi source nahi hona chahiye taki fungus polythenes ke 4 taraf spread ho jaye.

    Iske baad exhaust fan ki help se fungus ko puri hawa di jati hai. Mushroom ki kheti ke liye exhaust fan ground level se 7 inches upar laga hota hai. Yeh process 2 hours ke liye chalta hai. Uske bad uss room ke sabhi doors, windows aur lights ko bandh kardiya jata hai aur 1 hour bad fir se uss room ko 2 hours ke liye khol diya jata hai aur iss proceess ko ek aur baar repeat kiya jata hai. Iss pure process mein exhaust fan ko sirf 2 hours ke liye chalaya jata hai jab ki room total 6 hours ke liye khula rehta hai. Oyster mushroom ki kheti ke liye room ka temperature 30 degree se jyada nahi hona chahiye aur humidity approximately 70% honi chahiye.
  • Milky Mushroom ki kheti ke liye room ka environment kaisa hona chahiye?
    Milky mushroom ki kheti ke liye beejayi kiye gaye bags ko room mein rakha jata hai. Ismein bhi doors aur windows and rakhne hote hai lekin inn 20 days ke time period mein bag aur room ka temperature regular basis par observe karna zaruri hai. Bag ka temperature check karte time iss bat ka dhyan rakhna bahut zaruri hai ki thermometer ka sensor wala part bag mein side se insert kiya jaaye aur bagka temperature ussi condition mein check hona chahiye na ki thermometer ko bahar nikal kar. Milky mushroom ki kheti karte time shuru ke 20 days mein bag ka temperature 25-30 degrees hona chahiye aur room ka temperature aur humidity hydro meter ki help se check kiya jaa sakta hai.

    Humidity 70-90% aur temperature 25-30 degrees ke beech hona chahiye. 20 days complete hone ke baad, plastic polythenes mein fungus spread ho chuka hota hai aur polythenes white ho jati hain. Iske baad milky mushroom bag  ko rope se neeche utara jata hai aur usse upper portion se faada jata hai. Iske bad ismein compost dali jati hai jo ki coconut fodder aur 1.5 years purane gobar se bani hoti hai.
  • Compost banane ki vidhi 
    Milky mushroom ki casing ke liye soil ko Coconut ke burade ie Coconut peat aur 1.5 years purane gobar se banaya jata hai. Sabse pehle Coco peat ko paani mein soak kiya jata hai aur jab weh apni shape se 4 times bada ho jata hai, toh usse paani se nikal diya jata hai. Gobar aur Coco Peat ka mixture taiyar karte time 80% quantity gobar ki hoti hai aaur 20% quantity Coco Peat ki hoti hai. Iss mixture ko achhe se mix karke, paani mein 5% Formaline mix karke isse mixture par sprinkle kiya jata hai kyonki ho sakta hai ki gobar ya coconut peat mein insects, moths etc present ho jo mushroom ko damage karte hain.

    Fertiliser spray karne ke baad soil ko upar neeche palta jaata hai aur 3 days tak usse cover karke chodh diya jata hai taki ismein koi bhi bacteria na bache. Milky mushroom ki kheti karne ke liye 20 days purani soil unn plastics bags mein bhari jati hai jismein fungus grow kara tha lekin iss baat ka dhyan rakhein ki soil bharte time polythene ko press na karein aur light hands se soil ko nag ke chaarotaraf spread karna chahiye

    Bags mei soil casing ka process pura hone ke bad, bags ka upper part kholkar unmein ussi din se water spray machine ke through 10-12 days tak thoda thoda paani diya jata hai. Paani dete time sirf spray machine ka hi use hona chahiye kyonki paani sirf soil tak hi pahunchna chahiye aur bhoose tak nahi jana chahiye. Iss 10-12 days ke time period ke dauran milky mushroom nikalna shuru ho jate hain aur inki height 10-12 inches tak ho sakti hai.

Mushroom farming Training Centers in India

Mushroom farming business karne ke liye kisano ko training bhi leni padti hai. India mein sarkar ne kisano ke liye kayi Prashikshan kendra (Training Centres) khol rakhein hain jahan par farmers ko proper training di jati hai aur Mushroom farming ki techniques sikhayi jaati hain. Toh aaiye jaante hain inn training centers ke baare mein-

  1. Institute of Horticulture Technology
    Greater Noida NCR mein located Institute of Horticulture Technology 2009 mein Akhil Bhartiya Grameen Vikas Sanstha ke under sthapit (establish) hue kuch unique Institutes mein se ek hai. Yahan par Shahar aur gaaon mein rehne wale kisano, mahilaon aur yuvaon ko Hi- Tech Horticulture se judi knowledge aur skills provide kiye jaate hain.

    Yahan par mushroom farming business se jude kuch courses mein training provide ki jaati hai jaise-
    Mushroom Production- Iss course ki duration 2 weeks (hafte) hoti hai.
    Home Scale Mushroom Production- Iss course ki duration 1 week hoti hai.
    Commercial Mushroom Production- Iss course ki duration 2 weeks hai.

    Inn courses ke baare mein detail mein jananae ke liye yahan click karein.

    2. ICAR – Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
    Iss institute ne Lucknow, Nagpur, Ranchi, Godhra, Chettalli aur Gonikopal mein apne experimental stations ki sthapna kar ke apni Research Activities ko expand kiya hai. IIHR Bangalore ne fruits, vegetables, ornaments, medicines aur mushroom mein apni research kari hai.

    Yahan par mushroom farming business se jude kuch courses mein training provide ki jaati hai jaise-
    Spawn (Mushroom seed) Production
    Mushroom Cultivation

    Inn courses ke baare mein detail mein janane ke liye yahan click karein.

    3. ICAR- Directorate of Mushroom Research
    Yahan par mushroom farming business se jude kuch courses mein training provide ki jaati hai jaise-
    Cultivation Technology of White Button Mushroom
    Cultivation Technology of Oyster Mushroom
    Cultivation Technology of Paddy Straw Mushroom

    Inn courses ke alawa bhi iss training mein mushroom farming se jude bahut se cheezein detail mein padhayi jati hain jaise-
    Mushroom ki medicinal value
    Mushroom Spawn ki preparation Techniques
    Mushroom ke liye substrate preparation technique
    Mushroom farming ke liye Infrastructure kaise set up karein
    Mushroom ki crop raising aur crop management
    Mushroom farming mein pest management
    Mushrooms ki post harvest handling

    Inn courses ke baare mein detail mein janane ke liye yahan click karein.

Mushroom ka beej kaha milta hai

Mushroom ki kheti shuru karne se pehle ek sawal jo hum sabhi ke man mein ata hai, wo hai ki Mushroom ke beej yani ki spawn kahan milta hai.
Mushroom ke beej aap online aur offline dono tareeko se khareed sakte hain.

Agar aap online mushroom ke beej khareedna chahte hain Toh aap India Mart se khareed sakte hain. Ye ek aisa online platform hai jahan par aapko cheap rates par mushroom ke beej mil sakte hain.

Agar aap offline mushroom ke beej khareedna chahte hain toh aap apne shahar ke  Sarkar dwara banaye gaye Krishi Kendro (Government approved Agricultural Centres) ki help se khareed sakte hain. 

Mushroom ke beej ka price
Iske liye sabse pehle aapko yeh decide karna hoga ki aap kis type ke mushroom ki kheti karna chahte hain.

Agar aap online mushroom ke beej purchase karte hain jaise ki India Mart se to inka price Rs 75/kg hai jo ki brand aur seeds ke type ke according change hoti rehti hai.

Agar aap krishi kendro se beej khareedte hain toh aapko beej Rs 80-100/kg ke rate par mil sakte hain. 

Mushroom ki kheti mein lagat

Mushroom ki kheti ek aisa business hai jo ki kam lagat mein bhi shuru kiya jaa sakta hai. Mushroom ki kheti aap 2 tareeko se kar sakte hain. Agar aap small scale par iss business ko shuru karna chahte hain toh aapke pas ek khet hona chahiye jisse aap lakdi (wood) ki help se uss land ko ek closed room ki tarah cover kar lein. Dusra tareeka iss business ko shuru karne ka yeh hai ki aap apni ek company ya factory khol kar isse large scale par shuru kar sakte hain. Mushroom ugane ka process yani vidhi ek hi jaisi hoti hai fir chahe aap iss business ko small scale par karein ya large scale par.

Compost material

Mushroom ki kheti ke liye compost banana padta hai aur compost banane ke liye humein bahut se materials ki zarurat padti hai. Aapke materials ki quantity depend karti hai ki aap kis level par mushroom ki kheti shuru kar rahein hain. Hum aapko ek medium level business ke according batayenge. Toh aaiye jaante hain compost ke according in materials ka price.

Compost Material

Quantity (in kg)

Price per kg (in Rs)

Total price (in Rs)

Gehu aur Chawal ka bhoosa

6,000 kgs

8.00

48,000

Urea 

140 kgs

10.00

1,400

Wheat bran

300 kgs

15.00

4,500

Gypsum

1,000 kgs

9.00

9,000

Ammonium Sulphate

200 kgs

6.50

1,300

Calcium Ammonium Nitrate

200 kgs

25.00

5,000

Super Phosphate

100 kgs

9.00

900

Compost material ka total cost

   

70,100

Shed Material

Mushroom ki kheti karne ke liye hume ek shed taiyar karna padta hai jiske liye humein kuch materials ki zarurat padti hai. Inn materials ka price iss baat par depend karta hai ki aapka khet kaunsi location par hai aur aap kis quality ka material use kar rahein hain. Hum aapko yahan ek rough estimate batayenge-

Shed material

Quantity

Price per unit (in Rs) 

Total Cost (In Rs)

Polythene bags/ sheets

35 kg

180.00

6,300.00

Sutli

10 kg

300.00

3,000

Dhaan ka bhoosa

1 tonne

4,500

4,500

Bamboo poles (length 12’ width 3’’)

100 kg

120

12,000

Bamboo poles (length 10’ width 2.5’’)

220

110.00

23,200

Bamboo poles (length 10’ width 1’’)

280

100

2800

Total cost of shed material

   

51,800

Other expenses

 

Materials

Quantity (in kg)

Price per unit (in Rs)

Total

Spawns (beej)

100

75

7,500

Casing Soil

2,000

2.5

5,000

Other charges jaise transport

   

10,000

Total cost

   

22,500

Compost material, Shed material aur baki ke kharche ko milakar aapki total lagat Rs. 1,44,400 ki lagegi. Ye amount humne aapko ek mid level mushroom ki kheti ke according bataaya hai.
Agar aap small scale par mushroom ki kheti shuru karte hain toh aapki lagat Rs. 10,000-50,000 tak ke beech ki lagegi.
Agar aap large scale par mushroom ki kheti shuru karte hain toh aapki lagat Rs. 1,00,000 – 10,00,000 tak ke beech ki lagegi.

Mushroom ko kahan beche

Ab hum yeh toh jaan chuke hain ki Mushroom farming business yani mushroom ki kheti kaise karein par ek sawaal jo sabhi logo ke man mein hota hai wo yeh hai ki hum mushroom ko kahan beche.
Mushroom ki demand kaafi jagaho par badh gayi hai. Aajkal inka prayog chinese khano mein sabse zyada kiya jata hai jis wajha se inki hotels aur restaurants mein kaafi demand hai. Isliye aap inhe hotels, restaurants aur sudents hostels mei bhi bech sakte hain.
Mushroom utpadan karne ke baad usse sahi market tak pahunchane par hi aap munafa kama sakte hain. Waise toh mushroom ki kaafi demand hai lekin iske liye apko mandi mein ek bari pehchan banani padegi taki future mein apka mushroom easily market tak pahunch jaye.
Jin places par mushroom ki demand zyada nahi hain, wahan aap kuch logo ko ikathha kar ke mushroom ke fayde bata sakte hain. Aap unhe ye bhi bataye ki mushroom ka prayog medicines yani ki dawaiya banane mein bhi hota hai. Isse prabhavit hokar kuch log wahan mushroom khareed sakte hain aur isse aapko yeh bhi pata chal gaya ki mushroom ko dawayi banane wali companies ko bhi becha ja sakta hai.
Inn sab ke bawajood bhi agar aapke mushroom ka stock nahi bik raha toh aap mushrooms ko sukha kar aur unka powder bana kar unhe online bechkar munafa kama sakte hain.

Mushroom ki kheti se munafa

Mushroom ki kheti ek aisa business ban chuka hai jismein har saal 12.9% se badhotri ho rahi hai. Aisa isliye kyonki yeh business kam se kam lagat mein bhi shuru kiya jaa sakta aur ismein mota munafa kamaya jaa sakta hai.

Agar hum iska cost analysis karein toh hume yeh pata lagta hai ki per shed 3000 kg mushroom produce kiye jate hain jo ki market mein usually Rs 100/kg ke price par beche jate hain.

3000 x 100 = Rs 3,00,000
Agar hum total munafe ki baat karein toh weh hmara Rs (3,00,000 – 1,44,400 = 1,55,600) tak ka kama sakte hain.

Aapka profit margin aapke scale of business par bhi depend karta hai. Large scale par mushroom ki kheti shuru karne par aap 1,00,000- 5,00,000 tak ke beech ka munafa kama sakte hain. 

Mushroom ki kheti ke liye subsidies aur loans

  • Trained mushroom kisano ko National Bank for Rural  Development and Agriculture (NABARD/NHB) dwara loan extend kiya jata hai lekin loan lene ke liye kisano ko ek report NABARD se approve karani padti hai. Loan ke amount ke processing ke liye in cases ko Nationalised banks ko recommend kiya jata hai.
  • National Horticulture Board bhi mushroom farmers ko credit linked back- end subsidy ki form mein assistance provide karta hai. Subsidy ka amount total cost ka 20% hota hai (normal areas mein maximum amount 25 lakhs tak ka hota aur hilly areas mein 30 lakhs tak).
  • State Government bhi mushroom farmers ko encourage karne ke liye subsidies provide karti hai. Compost ke liye subsidy maximum 400 trays ke liye di jati hai aur compost ki transportation ke liye 100% subsidy di jati hai.
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna mein bhi kisaano ko mushroom shed/ houses, tools etc ke liye Rs 80,000 diye jaate hain.
  • Department of Agriculture and Cooperation bhi National Horticulture scheme ke under  farmers ko assistance provide karti hai. Aaiye iske kuch key facts jante hain-

    Spawn units, compost preparation aur training- Public sector ko 100% assistance di jati hai aur private sectors ko total cost ka 50% subsidy ki form mein grant kiya jata hai. (maximum subsidy amount- Rs 50,00,000)

    Spawn Production Units- Public sector ko total cost ka 100% aur private sector ko total cost ka 50% subsidy ki form mein diya jata hai. (maximum subsidy Rs 15,00,000)

    Compost Production Units-  Public sector ko total cost ka 100% aur private sector ko total cost ka 50% subsidy ki form mein diya jata hai. (maximum subsidy Rs 20,00,000)

Ab aap yeh toh jaan chuke hain ki aap apne business ke liye loan le sakte hain lekin agar aap yeh janana chahte hain ki aap apne business ke liye loan kaise aur kahan se le toh uske liye aap humara blog padh sakte hain jiska link humne de rakha hai.

Mushroom farming business se jude kuch Tips

  1. Jis room mein mushroom ki kheti ki jaa rahi hai, uss room mein ek window aur door hona zaruri hai.
  2. Polythene bags ka temperature check karne ke liye regular se thoda bada thermometer use karein aur uska sensor bag ke andar hona zaruri hai. Iska temperature check karte time weh 25-30 degree ke beech hona chahiye.
  3. Room ka temperature aur moisture check karne ke liye use kiya gaye instrument ka nam hai hydrometer aur uska temperature 25-30 degree ke beech hona chahiye.
  4. Oyster Mushroom ki farming ke time Soil casing ki zarurat nahi padti par milky mushroom aur button mushroom mein soil casing ki zarurat padti hai.

Mushroom farming business se jude kuch sawal

Q1. Mushroom ke beej kahan se khareedein?
Ans. Mushroom ka beej aap online kisi website se ya offline  sarkar dwara approve kiye gaye Krishi Kendro se khareed sakte hain. Detail mein jaankari ke liye yahan click karein.

Q2. Mushroom ki kheti mein kitna investment lagta hai?
Ans. Iss business mein apki investment yani ki lagat iss baat par depend karti hai ki aap mushroom ki kheti small scale par shuru kar rahein hain ya large scale par. Investment mein aap compost ke material, shed ke material ka cost aur baki kharcha bhi include karte hain. Detail mein jaankari ke liye yahan click karein.

Q3. Button mushroom ki kheti ke liye kitna temperature chahiye hota hai?Ans. Button Mushroom ko low temperature wale areas mein ugaaya jaata hai lekin Greenhouse Technology ke aane par inhe kisi bhi area bhi ugaya jaa sakta hai. Button mushroom ko ugane ke liye 14-18°C ka temperature, proper moisture aur fresh air hona zaruri hai isilye iski kheti zyadatar Himalyan range aur north Indian areas mein ki jaati hai.

Q4. Kya sarkar mushroom ki kheti ke liye subsidies ya loans deti hain?
Ans. Sarkar ne kisano ke liye bahut si schemes bana rakhi hain jiske tahat kisano ko subsidies aur loans mil sakte hain. Detail mein jaankari ke liye yahan click karein.

Q5. Mushroom ka market potential kya hai?
Ans. Aaj ke daur mein mushrooms bahut popular ho chuke hain aur inka market potential bhi kafi badh chuka hai. Button mushroom ka market mein fresh ya fir canned soup aur pickle yani achaar bana kar becha jaa sakta hai. Dhingri mushrooms ko bhi dry kar ke market mei becha jata hai.

I am a student of Shaheed Bhagat Singh College, University of Delhi. I am the head of Operations Department at Encode- The Internship Cell of SBSC and I am also the part of Organising team of TEDxSBSC. I am an enthusiast who is always keen to explore different things in life.

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